The European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC), with participation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), has released a consensus statement on personalized exercise for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Based on a systematic review of the evidence, the authors made recommendations.
The new EAPC and ESC consensus suggests individualized exercise programs as part of the management of patients with hypertension or at high risk of developing it. The text of the memorandum was published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.
The statement used the following classification: hypertension – blood pressure (BP) above 140/90 mmHg. Art., high normal blood pressure – 130–139/85-89 mm Hg. Art. and normal blood pressure – less than 130/84 mm Hg. Art.
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Based on a systematic review of the data, the authors identified preferred types of exercise and recommendations depending on whether the patient belongs to one of these categories. The consensus is that a certain reduction in BP is expected for each type of physical activity.
For patients with hypertension, aerobic exercise is primarily recommended, which should lead to a decrease in systolic pressure in the range of 4.9–12 mmHg. Art. and diastolic – 3.4–5.8 mm Hg. Art. Low to moderate intensity strength exercises, both dynamic and isometric, can also be used.
At high normal blood pressure, dynamic exercises are recommended as the first line; they reduce systolic pressure by 3.0−4.7 mmHg. Art. and diastolic – by 3.2−3.8 mmHg. Art. In patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, combining such exercise with aerobic exercise may be preferable.
For people with normal blood pressure and risk factors for hypertension, isometric strength exercises are recommended. The expected reduction in blood pressure is 5.4−8.3 mm Hg. Art. for systolic and 1.9−3.1 mmHg. Art. for diastolic. The authors also consider the possibility of aerobic training in such patients.